Popolation: 46,5 milions
Surface: 945.080 km²
Languages: kiswahili and english
Currency: Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Bilateral agreements: Canada, India, South Africa, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Zambia.
British rule came to an end on December 9, 1961, but for the first
year of independence, Tanganyika had a governor general who
represented the British monarch.
On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president.
After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar, which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964.
On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania ("Tan" comes from Tanganyika and "Zan" from Zanzibar).
The union of the two hitherto separate regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals.
In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism as well-as Pan-Africanism. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised.
Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia.
Nonetheless, from the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse, in the context of an international economic crisis affecting both developed and developing economies.
From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced, according to a report by the World Bank.
In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties.
In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president.
Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only
legally permitted party in the country.
This changed on 1 July 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly.
Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2010. The CCM holds approximately 75% of the seats in the assembly.
In October 2015, Tanzania announced that John Pombe Magufuli won the presidential election, securing a two-thirds majority in parliament.
The other party or main party in Tanzania is called Chadema, and is favoured by one of the country's major towns, Arusha.
President: John Magufuli
Prime Minister: Kassim Majaliwa
The President of Tanzania and the members of the National Assembly are
elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms.
The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket.
Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly.
The president appoints a prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly.
The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.
All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania and union matters
is vested in the National Assembly, which is unicameral and has a
maximum of 357 members.
These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president.
The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.
Current statistics on religion are unavailable because religious
surveys were eliminated from government census reports after 1967.
Religious leaders and sociologists estimated in 2007 that Muslim and Christian communities are approximately equal in size, each accounting for 30 to 40% of the population, with the remainder consisting of practitioners of other faiths, indigenous religions, and people of "no religion".
According to estimates from 2014, 61.4% of the population was Christian, 35.2% was Muslim, 1.8% practiced traditional African religions, 1.4% were unaffiliated with any religion, and 0.2 followed other religions.
Nearly the entire population of Zanzibar is Muslim. Of Muslims, 16% are Ahmadiyya (though they are often not considered Muslims), 20% are non-denominational Muslims, 40% are Sunni, 20% are Shia and 4% are Sufi.
The Christian population is mostly composed of Roman Catholics and Protestants. Among Protestants, the large number of Lutherans and Moravians points to the German past of the country, while the number of Anglicans point to the British history of Tanganyika. Pentecostals and Adventists are also present due to missionary activity. All of them have had some influence in varying degrees from the Walokole movement (East African Revival), which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.
On the mainland, Muslim communities are concentrated in coastal areas; there are also some large Muslim majorities in inland urban areas and along the former caravan routes. A large majority of the Muslim population is Sunni. The Muslim population of Dar es Salaam, the largest and richest city in Tanzania, is mainly Sunni.
There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus, and Bahá'ís.